Somatosensory receptors and nociceptors are important components of this organ system that serve as warning sensors, allowing the body to move away from noxious stimuli. The skin is by far the largest and most vast organ of the entire body. The cuticle is the outermost layer made of keratinocytes. Melanocytes produce the pigment melanin to protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation and sunburn. Langerhans cells’ role is to detect and fight pathogens that attempt to enter the body through the skin. Alcohol causes vasodilation in the dermis, leading to increased perspiration as more blood reaches sweat glands. Now please check your email to confirm your subscription. Hemoglobin is the red pigment found in red blood cells, but can be seen through the layers of the skin as a light red or pink color. Usually, this is the skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, and in addition to stratum lucidum, is also well supplied with nerve endings. Retrieved from https://biologydictionary.net/integumentary-system/. On the other hand, goosebumps arising from the contraction of arrector pili muscles can keep the body warm, especially in hairy mammals. Sebum is produced in the sebaceous glands and carried through ducts to the surface of the skin or to hair follicles. Lamellar corpuscles found deep in the dermis sense pressure and vibration of the skin. Under the cuticle are the cells of the cortex that form the majority of the hair’s width. Blood flowing through the dermal papillae provide nutrients and oxygen for the cells of the epidermis. The organs of the integumentary system form a water-proof layer over the body that also work as a physical barrier against microorganisms that cause integumentary system diseases. Sebum acts to waterproof and increase the elasticity of the skin. Carotene is another pigment present in the skin that produces a yellow or orange cast to the skin and is most noticeable in people with low levels of melanin. The most common bacterial infection of the skin is probably acne. Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Lymphatic System Male Reproductive System … Soap has 3 times less hydrogen ions than skin C. Soap has 1.4 times more hydrogen ions than skin D. Soap has 1000 times less hydrogen ions than skin, 3. In most of the body, the epidermis is arranged into 4 distinct layers. Sweat glands are necessary for thermoregulation, whether it is while working up a sweat during exercise or breaking a fever. At this point the cells are so far removed from the nutrients that diffuse from the blood vessels in the dermis that the cells go through the process of apoptosis. The reticular layer also contains blood vessels to support the skin cells and nerve tissue to sense pressure and pain in the skin. In each of these layers, keratinocytes undergo successive steps in differentiation beginning with the proliferative layer in the innermost stratum basale containing keratinocyte stem cells. The hair shaft and root are made of 3 distinct layers of cells: the cuticle, cortex, and medulla. The skin is … The dermis is the deep layer of the skin found under the epidermis. The integumentary system protects against many threats such as infection, desiccation, abrasion, chemical assault, and radiation damage. Ungraded . Integumentary System (Male Posterior View). This is particularly true during puberty, when the pores and glands of the skin can get clogged, leading to bacterial growth and infection. Sweat from these glands, along with sebum, can encourage bacterial growth, and form the site for infection, odor or rashes. Almost 90% of the epidermis is made of cells known as keratinocytes. Unsubscribe at any time. Image shows cross section of skin, with various dermal and epidermal layers, glands, nerves and blood vessels. In order to do these things, the integumentary system works with all the other systems of your body, each of which has a role to play in maintaining the internal c… The stratum lucidum is made of several rows of clear, dead keratinocytes that protect the underlying layers. Our mission is to provide objective, science-based advice to help you make more informed choices. This system is present in the human body, in vertebrate animals and in arthropods, and serves to isolate the body from the outside. The dermis is mostly made of dense irregular connective tissue along with nervous tissue, blood, and blood vessels. Our skin is made up of different layers, but the two main layers of it are Dermis and Epidermis. Being the body’s outermost organ, the skin is able to regulate the body’s temperature by controlling how the body interacts with its environment. 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